Sara Aly (CBIS, MSW, LCSW) is the Department Manager of the Adult Case Management program at Brain Injury Services. She is also a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. She received her Bachelor degree in Social Work from her home country Egypt and her Master’s degree in Clinical Social Work from George Mason University. She began her experience with Brain Injury Services as an intern during her graduate program. Sara is a certified Wellness and Recovery Coach and facilitates a variety of wellness workshops that empower survivors of brain injury and their caregivers in developing a personalized wellness plan that can help them in improving the quality of their life. She is also a certified interpreter in health and community settings. She has been employed at BIS since 2011.
Saleeha Artis is the Community Coordinator for Brain Injury Services’ Fredericksburg Day Program. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Health Science with a minor in Psychology from Virginia Commonwealth University. Outside of work she enjoys traveling, trying new foods, and creative arts. Saleeha has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2022.
Sarah Balas is a Pediatric Case Manager at Brain Injury Services. Sarah received her Bachelors in Social Work at James Madison University. While obtaining her degree, Sarah worked with children and families throughout various internships and volunteering opportunities which further drove her passion for helping and empowering others. Before working at Brain Injury Services, Sarah worked as a Registered Behavior Technician, providing ABA therapy to children and adolescents with autism and other developmental conditions.
Juan Pablo is a consultant with over 25 years of experience working in the social sector.
Juan Pablo is originally from Venezuela. He went law school there and obtained a J.D. His career started at the grassroots level. He worked in prisons, a refugee camp, the Amazon jungle, and a conflict zone. He then obtained two Master's degrees. One from Harvard University and one from Warwick University (UK). This allowed him to work as a consultant for international organizations. He worked for the World Bank, the United Nations, and the Pan-American Development Foundation.
Juan Pablo immigrated to the United States in 2010. Since then he has worked for domestic nonprofits. He currently focuses on improving nonprofit's management systems, mission capacity, and innovation capabilities. He also teaches Nonprofit Management at James Madison University. And he is working on his first book, the Nonprofit MBA.
Juan Pablo is now a dual citizen (Venezuelan-American). He is fully bilingual and bicultural.
He is also training to earn his black belt in Aikido.
Kathy Bisetti is a Unit Coordinator at the ADAPT Clubhouse. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Social Work from George Mason University. Kathy has been employed by Brain Injury Services since June 2018.
Claire Callison-Aub (MSW, CBIS) is the Program Manager of the Child and Adolescent Program. She has a Bachelor’s Degree in English, and a Master’s in Social Work from George Mason University. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since August 2009.
Bob Cerminaro is a Vocational Specialist in the Vocational Program at Brain Injury Services. He received a Bachelors Of Science degree in Individual & Family Studies from Penn State University. Bob is originally from Scranton, Pennsylvania, and currently resides in Belmont Bay, Virginia. In his leisure time, he enjoys watching football, listening to classic rock music, and walking his English bulldog Miles.
Charmise Damon is originally from South Carolina. She moved to Washington DC in 2013 and currently resides in DC. She received her Bachelor of Science in sociology with a concentration in social work from Voorhees College in 1999 and a few years later pursued her master’s degree in counseling in the areas of mental health and substance abuse at Webster University in 2006. She has extensive experience working in the human service field, serving children and families, and vocational rehabilitation and other employment services. She is the proud mother of her son Tyson. Charmise loves traveling, reading, and spending time with family.
Zach Daniel (CBIS) is the Manager of the Brain Injury Services of Fredericksburg office. He has a Bachelor of Science degree from Mary Washington University. He has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2008.
Markita Gilbert (MS, CBIS) is the Fredericksburg area Case Manager. She has a Master of Science degree in Human Services with a Specialization in Counseling from Capella University. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2007.
Natascha Grant (MA, CRC, CBIS) is the Vocational Manager. She holds undergraduate degrees in Criminal Justice and Sociology from Fayetteville State University and a Masters degree in Rehabilitation Counseling with a concentration in TBI from George Washington University. Her experience began with Brain Injury Services as an intern. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2014.
Andrew L. Gunn-Wilinski
Andrew comes to Brain Injury Services with an extensive background in development operations, most recently as vice president of development operations at the Akilah Foundation for Women as it began a goal of dramatically scaling its unique educational program in Rwanda into Asia and North East Africa, and as Senior Director of Development at the George Washington University, where he was a significant contributor to GW’s $1B Making History Campaign.
Andrew holds a BSBM from the University of Phoenix with course work in Organizational Performance Improvement at George Washington University. A certified and active Reiki practitioner, he was raised in the United Kingdom and lived for five years in Okinawa, Japan. He currently resides in Northern Virginia with his husband Tom and their Jack Russel Terrier, Lucy.
Meryiem Hadji is a unit coordinator at ADAPT Clubhouse. She has a bachelor’s degree in Psychology from St Cloud State University, Minnesota. Meryiem has been employed by Brain Injury Services since 2021.
Patrice Hall-Jackson is a Vocational Specialist in the Vocational Program at Brain Injury Services. She received an Associate of Occupational Science degree in Visual Communications. Patrice has been working with children and adults with intellectual disabilities since 2001. Previously Patrice worked as an Employment Specialist for adults with intellectual disabilities in Maryland. She enjoys making natural body products, graphic design, photography, and making arts and crafts with her daughter.
Amanda Holsinger (MPA) is an Adult Case Manager in Winchester. She graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University with a Bachelor’s in Criminal Justice and a Master’s in Public Administration. She joined Brain Injury Services in 2016.
Sheridan M. Knowles
Sheridan Knowles (MS, OTR/L) is an occupational therapist serving as a Specialist in the Community Participation and Skill-Building Services (ComPASS) program and the Fredericksburg Day Program. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Shepherd University and a Master of Science degree in Occupational Therapy from Towson University. She has experience working in a variety of healthcare settings including acute care, skilled nursing facilities, inpatient rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation, and administration capacities, and has served communities in Maryland, Washington DC, and Michigan. While her clinical experience is multifaceted, Sheridan is particularly passionate about serving survivors of brain injury and promoting tools and strategies to help them reach their highest level of independence and fulfillment. Sheridan has a background in theater and vocal performance and enjoys many hobbies including gardening and caring for her many houseplants, yoga and strength training, cooking, and spending time with family. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since October 2021.
Joy Koeppen (LCSW, CBIS) is the Counseling Manager at BIS. Joy has a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Grove City College in Pennsylvania and a Master’s Degree in Social work from Virginia Commonwealth University.
Joy’s passion for working with individuals with disabilities and their families began when she worked for Brain Injury Services as a Case Manager from 2000-2003. Joy returned to the BIS team in 2015 as the BIS Mental Health Therapist. Joy’s clinical experience spans more than 20 years in a variety of settings including healthcare, public schools and private practice working primarily with adults, parents of children with special needs, individuals with disabilities and family caregivers. Joy uses an eclectic clinical approach utilizing a wide variety of proven psychotherapy tools.
Originally from Pittsburgh, PA, Joy has lived in Virginia more than half her life and feels more like a native. When not working, Joy enjoys being with her family consisting of her husband, two sons and a lovable labrador retriever. Joy enjoys singing, gardening, being creative and being outside as often as possible to recharge physically, emotionally, and spiritually.
NKenya Lassiter (MA, CRC, CBIS) currently is the Director of Operations at Brain Injury Services. She has her bachelor’s degree in Psychology and a Master’s Degree in Rehabilitation Counseling.
NKenya has been employed at BIS since 2002 and has worked in the field and with persons with various disabilities since 2000.
Paula Levin-Alcorn (MSW, LCSW) is an Adult Case Manager. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Towson University and a Master’s degree in Social Work from the University of Maryland. Paula was a case manager at BIS from 1996 to 2001 and is delighted to be back.
Jess Linquist is an Adult Case Manager covering Prince William County. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from The George Washington University, where she also competed in Division-I Softball. She will graduate in May 2023 with a Master of Arts in Rehabilitation Counseling from The George Washington University. Her experience began with Brain Injury Services as an intern. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since November 2022.
Stephanie Lloyd is the Manager at the ADAPT Clubhouse. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Sociology from the University of Dayton in Dayton, Ohio. Stephanie has been employed by Brain Injury Services since February 2019.
Lisa McCarthy (MA, NCC, CBIST) is the Deputy Director. She has a Bachelor of Science degree from James Madison University, an Associate’s Degree in Respiratory Therapy from Shenandoah University and a Master of Arts Degree in Counseling from The College of New Jersey. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 1999.
Jacqueline Paz is the Fredericksburg area pediatric case manager for Brain Injury Services where she facilitates resources for care givers and clients, education and awareness, and transitional services when applicable. She comes to the Fredericksburg area after completing her Master’s in Forensic Psychology from George Washington University. During this time, she worked as a residential counselor and facility manager at Center For Discovery working primarily with adult women with eating disorders and adolescents with severe mental health needs. In addition, Jacqueline volunteers with the Office for Women in Fairfax County providing resources to victims of domestic violence and assault. Jacqueline has had the honor of orchestrating a school tour raising awareness about the impact mental health has on children and the stressors they face in today’s world. Jacqueline received a B.A. in Psychology with a minor in Biology from West Virginia University Institute of Technology.
Elaine Perkins (BA, COTA/L) is an Administrative Assistant at Brain Injury Services in Springfield, VA. She has a Bachelor of Arts in Communication from George Mason University and an Associate degree in Occupational Therapy from Northern Virginia Community College. Elaine has been involved with BIS in 2012 as a caregiver support group member and then as an OTA intern at ADAPT clubhouse in 2019. Outside of work, she enjoys practicing yoga, traveling, and live music. Elaine has been employed with Brain Injury Services since 2022.
Sarah Pickford (MS, OTR/L, CBIS) is the Manager of Community Participation and Skill-Building Services. She is helping to initiate the BIS Assistive Technology Program. While obtaining her Bachelor’s Degree in Industrial Design from North Carolina State University she studied product design, human factors/ergonomics, aesthetic appeal, and universal design principles. She also earned a Master of Science in Occupational Therapy from Shenandoah University and is licensed in the state of Virginia. She draws knowledge and skills from both of these fields as she helps clients find assistive technology that supports their ability to engage in the activities they find meaningful. Sarah has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2012.
James Redmon (MSW, MPH) is the Adult Case Manager in Leesburg covering Loudoun and western Fairfax Counties. He holds a Master’s Degree in Social Work from the University of Michigan and Public Health from the University of California, Berkeley. He has worked in California and Kansas in a variety of roles including direct service, state policy, grantmaking, and administration.
Tamara Rogers (MS, OTR/L, BCPR, CBIS) is an occupational therapist in the Community Participation and Skill-Building Services (ComPASS) program. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Child Development and a Master’s of Science degree in Occupational Therapy, both from Tufts University. She has experience working in acute care, inpatient rehabilitation, and outpatient settings, including completing a year-long fellowship program in Neurology with MedStar National Rehabilitation Hospital in Washington, DC. She obtained her Board Certification in Physical Rehabilitation in 2019 and is particularly passionate about helping individuals with brain injuries live their most fulfilling and productive lives. In her free time, she enjoys running, reading, field hockey, and spending time with family. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since July 2020.
Elyse Schneider (MS) is an Adult Case Manager. She recently relocated to Virginia from the Pittsburgh area. Elyse received her Bachelor’s in Psychology from Seton Hill University and her Master’s in Professional Counseling from Carlow University. She has worked in human services in various positions for the past 10 years.
Before working with Brain Injury Services, Elyse worked for the Area Agency on Aging in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. She has provided case management to older adults for the past four years and is excited to learn more about Virginia and empowering individuals.
Outside of work, Elyse enjoys spending time hiking with friends, finding hidden waterfalls, and binge-watching TV series.
Katy Schnitger is the Outreach and Advocacy Manager at Brain Injury Services. She earned her Bachelor of Arts in English and Anthropology from Albion College. Katy has been involved with BIS since 2010 as a client and as a volunteer with the Speaker’s Bureau. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since 2015.
Stacy Stone (OTR/L) has a Bachelor of Business and Organizational Communication from the University of Akron and a Bachelor of Health Science certificate in Occupational Therapy from Cleveland State University. She had experience in marketing and public relations before pursuing her degree in health sciences. She has worked in rehabilitation settings in Florida, Mississippi, Ohio, and Virginia primarily in hospitals, however, is eager to further her experience with assistive technology and cognitive rehabilitation at BIS. She is pursuing ongoing certifications and education with a passion to share new skills and knowledge with clients. Her interests are in reading, travel, running, and animals. She has a set of electric drums that are gathering dust, but that will one day be mastered!
One of Brittany’s favorite quotes is, “life isn’t about waiting for the storm to pass. It’s about learning to dance in the rain.” She has had the pleasure of serving as an honorary dance instructor to children, adolescents, adults, and families in various community behavioral health settings. One of her passions is supporting clients by rediscovering their strengths, embracing their humanness, and finding their balance.
Brittany has been in the social work field for over 10 years. She attended Virginia Commonwealth University, earning a Bachelor of Social Work Degree in 2010 and a Master of Social Work Degree in 2012 – GO RAMS!! She has experience in providing mental health therapy, intensive care coordination, crisis intervention, and clinical case management services in the community and school-based behavioral health programs. Brittany became a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in 2019.
She is known for her work ethic, sense of humor, compassion, and creativity. She enjoys incorporating art activities, music, meditation, writing, and physical activity into therapy. Witnessing the growth and resilience of the individuals and families she serves is what motivates her to remain in the field! She believes that she learns just as much from her clients as they learn from her.
Michelle Thyen (CVA) is the Director of Community Engagement. She has a Bachelor’s Degree from Loyola College in Maryland and a Graduate Certification from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. She has also obtained her CVA, Certification in Volunteer Administration. She has been employed with Brain Injury Services since 2002.
Raisa Velez (M.S., OTR/L, CBIS, CEAS) is the Veterans Case Manager with Brain Injury Services. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in Public Communications from Syracuse University and a Master of Science degree in Occupational Therapy from New York University. Before joining the Brain Injury Services team, Raisa served in the U.S. Army for five years as an Adjutant General officer. During her service, she worked as a SHARP Victim Advocate and Response Coordinator, a position that eventually led to her pursuit of an Occupational Therapy degree as a means to build a career focused on helping those in need. As an OT, Raisa has worked in acute and subacute rehabilitation. In assignments, she gained extensive experience working with traumatic and acquired brain injury patients, developing an understanding of the needs of these populations and of the role proper care plays in their empowerment, increased functional independence, and self-efficacy. Raisa is very excited about the opportunity to help veterans achieve their community independence goals. Raisa’s hobbies include spending time with her family, her “fur-baby” Appa, and traveling. She has been employed at Brain Injury Services since September 2020.
Board of Directors
David L. Bulova
I was first introduced to BIS in 1997 and immediately knew that I wanted to be a part of this special organization. The staff at BIS make such a huge difference in people’s lives.
David Bulova represents the 37th District of the Virginia House of Delegates, which includes the City of Fairfax and portions of Fairfax County. In the House, he serves on the General Laws, Agriculture, Chesapeake, and Natural Resources, and Education committees as well as the State Water Commission, the Housing Commission, the Joint Commission on Health Care, the Chesapeake Bay Commission, and the Virginia War Memorial Board.
David received a BA in Government from the College of William and Mary and a Masters in Public Administration and Policy from Virginia Tech. He is also a graduate of the Sorensen Institute of Political Leadership at the University of Virginia. Professionally, David works as a Project Manager for Amec Foster Wheeler, where he helps local governments and industry to comply with federal and state water resources regulations.
David lives in the Middleridge community of Fairfax with his wife Gretchen and their three children.
“Compared to all the injuries in the sport, brain injury is the most detrimental. I am fortunate for the experiences but grateful that I am in the position to pursue a second career while helping others cope with brain injury.”
Chris Carr is a former American football cornerback, punt returner, and kick returner in the National Football League (NFL). Chris started playing football as a youth and continued his pursuit to become a professional athlete in the NFL. His professional career spanned nine seasons with the NFL. He was signed by the Oakland Raiders in 2005 and continued to play for the Tennessee Titans, Baltimore Ravens, Minnesota Vikings, San Diego Chargers, New Orleans Saints. Throughout the years, he has seen parents, coaches, and players ignore the injuries and the signs, which sometimes are not readily apparent. He announced his intention to retire in 2014 and pursued a law degree, graduating in 2017 from George Washington University Law School. He is currently an attorney at Zeman and Petterson, PLLC in Falls Church, Virginia.
Thomas F. Hospod
Tom Hospod is a traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivor working as a real estate finance and development specialist out of the Washington, DC area. Trained as a lawyer, Tom graduated from the University of Miami School of Law with his JD in 2015 and from Boston College with his BA in History and International Studies in 2011. Before attending law school, Tom served as a Legislative Aide in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, working on issues related to disability education during his tenure. After graduating from law school, he worked as a Regulatory Counsel for a compliance firm based in the Boston area.
A year and a half into his first job out of law school, Tom had a catastrophic accident while vacationing with his family, suffering a TBI that left him with spastic hemiplegia on the left side of his body. Tom went on to change industries, obtaining his Real Estate Investment Certificate from Harvard Extension School. During this time, he underwent an extensive physical and occupational therapy regimen – which only took him so far. He then dedicated himself to seeking out and staying on the cutting edge of therapies and treatments to help improve the quality of life of those living with TBI. He is currently enrolled in an experimental treatment for spasticity at Johns Hopkins University, in addition to an experimental robotic-assisted therapy program produced by Harvard Labs.
Tom lives in Alexandria, VA with his husband, former Naval Officer and Founder of Forge/VFR Eric Golnick, who runs a company dedicated to meeting the mental health needs of veterans and first responders. Being a field that often intersects with TBI, Tom has served unofficially as the company’s go-to resource for all matters TBI-related, ensuring these veterans have access to all available resources.
Paul N. Kashchy
Paul N. Kashchy is a Vice President and Senior Business Banking Relationship Manager for City National Bank. Before that, he was the Vice President and Business Relationship Manager with Atlantic Union Bank. He is sought after by his clients and colleagues for his leadership and guidance in the areas of financial management, budgeting, analytics and relationship management. Paul’s role at the bank requires him to be in the field working his clients and providing solutions for their commercial banking needs while executing the bank’s goals and strategies. Paul works primarily with non-profits, professionals, associations and commercial real estate clients.
Prior to Atlantic Union Bank, he was with Capital One Bank in a similar Relationship Manager role and served as a Market Manager with Capital One / Chevy Chase Bank, where he was responsible for the development and growth of multiple bank branches. Paul’s dedication to his team and clients was exemplified by the number of associate and customer lives he impacted, during his time in the branches.
Paul lives in the Reston/Herndon market with his wife, 2 kids, dog and cat. Paul serves as a local community leader as the Treasurer for the local Cub Scout pack, coach’s baseball and volunteers with his children’s school PTO Association.
Erin O. Mattingly
Erin Mattingly (M.A., CCC/SLP, CBIS) is a speech-language pathologist (SLP), strategic consultant, traumatic brain injury (TBI) subject matter expert, and the Director of Strategic Development at Loyal Source Government Services, a professional management consulting and staffing firm.
Ms. Mattingly has over 15 years of experience treating patients across the continuum of brain injury severity, from mild to severe injury, in both civilian and military populations. In her role as a consultant, she has worked on a variety of White House and Cabinet-level initiatives focused on suicide prevention and mental health across the Nation. Prior to her role as a consultant, Ms. Mattingly started the SLP program at a unique Department of Defense facility, specializing in the evaluation and treatment of Service members with mild traumatic brain injury and psychological health disorders. She has served in a variety of leadership positions across brain injury and SLP organizations, including the Academy of Certified Brain Injury Specialists (ACBIS), the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences (ANCDS), and the Neurogenic Communication Disorders Special Interest Group of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). She has multiple publications and presents at the state and national level on the treatment and evaluation of survivors of brain injury and suicide prevention in the Veteran and civilian populations.
Ms. Mattingly graduated from the University of Virginia with a Bachelor of Science in Education and the Ohio State University with a Masters in Communication Disorders. Ms. Mattingly holds her ASHA certification in speech-language pathology, her license to practice speech-language pathology in Washington, DC, and is a Certified Brain Injury Specialist.
JoAnn Perry has worked across the public and private sectors to advise on business growth strategy and help drive organizational transformation within federal agencies undergoing IT modernization efforts. As an account manager with Accenture for over 5 years, she oversaw large-scale programs for the government to adopt technology, including data analytics, cloud computing, and business intelligence platforms.
She began her career at the Central Intelligence Agency where she frequently authored written assessments in the President’s Daily Brief and held a Top Secret clearance.
She is currently an active investor with an impact-focused angel investment fund and enjoys collaborating with her husband on marketing strategy for his local law practice. She earned her MBA from the Darden Graduate School of Business in 2012, and graduated from Emory University with a BA in Psychology in 2006.
Lastly, JoAnn has a personal connection to the work BIS does. In 2013 her mother-in-law suffered a brain injury. JoAnn’s role as a temporary caretaker provided the impetus for her and her husband to seek out opportunities to give back to the broader brain injury survivors population. They found BIS and the rest is history!
She lives in Falls Church with her husband and two young children.
Stacey Piper founded Piper Strategies marketing and creative agency in 2017, prior to that she worked as the head of federal marketing for a billion-dollar global brand. She is an accomplished, results-driven marketing strategist with nearly 30 years of experience developing and implementing successful integrated marketing campaigns. Stacey has a proven record of successful translating commercial marketing best practices and digital trends into pragmatic federal marketing strategies for government contractors.
Now she works as a Fractional CMO for growing firms to leading marketing strategy and helping them to build marketing infrastructure and capacity. She works as an outsourced marketing department for other clients, helping to develop and disseminate content across earned, owned, and paid channels. With a strong background in sales and business development Stacey forms strong partnerships with sales teams and client-facing staff to ensure that the marketing strategies and messages speak directly to the customer, where they are. She is passionate about driving innovation and growth.
Stacey moved to the DC Metro area upon graduating from Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania in 1994 with a BS in Marketing. She earned her MS in Marketing from Johns Hopkins University in 2007. Stacey served as an Adjunct Professor at Marymount University 2006-2007 and is currently on the faculty of Government Marketing University. She lives in Fairfax with her husband and daughter. Learn more at https://piperstrategies.com.
Andrea Spetrini is a licensed CPA with BDO’s assurance division. Andrea has over 13 years of experience in public accounting with local, regional, and national CPA firms. Andrea’s public accounting experience includes accounting, auditing, and financial advising for nonprofit and healthcare organizations in the DC, Virginia, and Maryland area. Andrea’s nonprofit specialization includes financial statement reporting, auditing grant financial compliance, and performing operational and internal control reviews for a wide-variety of tax-exempt organizations.
She graduated from Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania in 2005 with a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, concentrating in accounting and economics, and earned her Master’s in Business Administration in 2008 from Loyola University Maryland. Andrea is a native Maryland-er and lives in Annapolis with her husband.
Kevin Stenstrom is a strategist and business development leader recognized and known for developing and motivating cross-functional teams to achieve superior results and execute on time and on budget. Prior to joining Deployed Resources, he was Vice President of Business Development at Zantech. In his role at Zantech, he was charged with developing and deploying business development, capturing strategies, building a pipeline for high end mission solutions for software development, modeling and simulation, cyber, C4ISR and systems engineering work.
As the Director of Business Development at ARServices, he was responsible for the development and expansion of the company’s business profile within the Department of Defense and federal civilian marketplaces.
Kevin is a retired U.S. Naval aviator with over 3000 hours in the P-3C aircraft. During his military career, he also served as a Strategic Planner in the Navy International Programs Office, and as Branch Chief for Communications Interoperability within the Pacific Command’s Communications Systems Directorate. He graduated from the U.S. Marines Corps War College with a Masters in National Security Affairs and Strategic Studies.
He lives in Burke, VA with his wife Kendel Paulsen and their three children.